Passover Haggadah

A special thanks to my friends Ole Anthony and Tom Brooks of the “Community on Columbia” for their inspired contributions to presenting and understanding the Haggadah. Also, the House of David has put together a Haggadah that is simpler and more colorful, but still very helpful.

The embedded songs are "targummed" from the Psalms and are written, sung and played by my friend John Rutledge with accompaniment from others of the "Community on Columbia". These are wonderful to experience in person during the celebrations of the feasts!

Neither Hunger Relief Ministries nor I personally claim any ownership of the materials presented here, as they have assimilated from many sources over the years. We do not believe we have infringed on any copyrighted materials, and thank the many others whose work made this document possible.

Red text is for the “Father” to read.

Bold is for all to read aloud

Blue is for readers appointed by the “Father” or the Narrator

Italic is for scripture (Narrator may appoint readers)

Normal text is for the Leader to either read or targum

The Haggadah (Hebrew: הַגָּדָה‎, "telling"; plural: Haggadot) is a Hebrew text that sets forth the order of the Passover Seder. Reading the Haggadah at the Seder table is a fulfillment of the mitzvah to each Jew to "tell your son" of a story from the Book of Exodus about Israelites being delivered from slavery, involving an Exodus from Egypt through the hand of Yahweh in the Torah ("And thou shalt tell thy son in that day, saying: It is because of that which the LORD did for me when I came forth out of Egypt." Ex. 13:8). Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews also apply the term Haggadah to the service itself, as it constitutes the act of "telling your son."

The Haggadah was written primarily in Hebrew and Aramaic, in a style similar to the Talmud and Midrash. It is meant to cause you to meditate on the depth of God's presence, power and love in a much deeper way than just reading can do. This experienced with the celebratory Seder meal, which is meant to be celebrated with family for 2 to 4 hours.


Leaven

Exodus 12:15 says “...on the first day [of Passover] you shall remove all leaven from your houses; for whoever eats anything leavened from the first day until the seventh day, that person shall be cut off from Israel.”

  • Leaven of the Pharisees: (hypocrisy)
    • Luke 12:1-3 “In the meantime, when so many thousands of the people had gathered together that they were trampling one another, he began to say to his disciples first, “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. Nothing is covered up that will not be revealed, or hidden that will not be known. Therefore whatever you have said in the dark shall be heard in the light, and what you have whispered in private rooms shall be proclaimed on the housetops.
    • Matthew 6:2 “Thus, when you give to the needy, sound no trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may be praised by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward.”
    • Matthew 6:5 “And when you pray, you must not be like the hypocrites. For they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and at the street corners, that they may be seen by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward.”
    • Matthew 6:16 “And when you fast, do not look gloomy like the hypocrites, for they disfigure their faces that their fasting may be seen by others. Truly, I say to you, they have received their reward.
    • Matthew 23:1-26 - “13 But woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you shut the door to the kingdom of heaven in people's faces. 14 For you neither enter yourselves nor allow those who would enter to go in. Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you travel across sea and land to make a single proselyte, and when he becomes a proselyte, you make him twice as much a child of hell as yourselves.
    • Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! For you clean the outside of the cup and the plate, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. 26 You blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and the plate, that the outside also may be clean.
  • Leaven of the Sadduccees (not seeing the power of God)
    • Acts 23:6-9 Now when Paul perceived that one part were Sadducees and the other Pharisees, he cried out in the council, “Brothers, I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees. It is with respect to the hope and the resurrection of the dead that I am on trial.” And when he had said this, a dissension arose between the Pharisees and the Sadducees, and the assembly was divided. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, nor angel, nor spirit, but the Pharisees acknowledge them all. Then a great clamor arose, and some of the scribes of the Pharisees' party stood up and contended sharply, “We find nothing wrong in this man. What if a spirit or an angel spoke to him?
    • Matthew 22:23-33 The same day Sadducees came to him, who say that there is no resurrection, and they asked him a question, saying, “Teacher, Moses said,‘If a man dies having no children, his brother must marry the widow and raise up offspring for his brother.’ Now there were seven brothers among us. The first married and died, and having no offspring left his wife to his brother. So too the second and third, down to the seventh. After them all, the woman died. In the resurrection, therefore, of the seven, whose wife will she be? For they all had her.But Jesus answered them, “You are wrong, because you know neither the Scriptures nor the power of God. For in the resurrection they neither marry nor are given in marriage, but are like angels in heaven. And as for the resurrection of the dead, have you not read what was said to you by God: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob’? He is not God of the dead, but of the living.” And when the crowd heard it, they were astonished at his teaching.
  • Leaven of Herod (seeing lack in any area of your life - materialism)
    • Herod's law was the Roman law, which he enforced. But he did not bother with the moral law, even in his own life regarding marriage and murder. The leaven of Herod draws attention to the difference between civil (Roman) law and moral law. In our day there are people who consider themselves very upstanding people if they have not broken the law of the land, but their morality is largely a-moral. The leaven of Herod involves an exalting of civil law above God’s moral law – putting man’s law above God’s law. Jesus tells us to beware of this.

1 Corinthians 5:6-8 says: “Purge out the old leaven, that you may be a new lump, since you truly are unleavened. For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, nor with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth”.

Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the universe, Who sanctified us with His commandments, and instructed us concerning the removal of leaven.

All leaven upon my premises which I have seen or removed, and that of which I am not even aware, is hereby declared null and void as the dust of the earth. Blessed are you, O Lord, Our God, who cleanses and purifies us from all leaven. Amen!

By the power of the Holy Spirit, through the sacrifice of Christ Jesus and in obedience to You, O Lord, Our God, we declare that all leaven, whether here confessed or hidden is purged from our hearts, minds and souls!


Passover Introduction

Rules

  • Sit by age (youngest on the right of the “head of household”). Seating was on pillows on the floor…but we can be in chairs…
  • The room is only lit with candles. Jesus is the light of the world. Don’t let the darkness of the world be your guide.
  • We will drink 4 cups of wine. The children will get grape juice, as will anyone else who wants it. Please be responsible…this is not Purim!
  • Sense of simplicity and unity. We are a family per God’s command.
  • Once we start the seder, cell phones will be off and the doors will be ceremonial locked. Please fully engage in what is happening. This is an experience not to be taken lightly.
  • Remember that you are encouraged to “targum” or “expand on the tale”, but do please respect our time constraints!

Passover Background

The aim of the Seder on the night of Passover is to remember and celebrate the events and miracles of the liberation of the Israelites from bondage in Egypt (Exodus 12+), which is our story of liberation from bondage to the world (the “world system”). We don’t do this out of legalism or obligation, but to deepen our experience and understanding of God the Father and our Savior, Jesus the Christ.

This event was the birth of the nation of Israel, manifesting the presence and power of God in our world. From this event came the law, the calendar, the priesthood, and their holy convocations. The Hebrews have been celebrating the Passover now for more than 3,000 years, and we are going to share in that experience today.

Remember that we are all Hebrews (per Paul’s comments in Romans 11). So we have every right to celebrate and share in the blessings of this Feast!

Exodus 12:1-13 - “The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt, This month shall be for you the beginning of months. It shall be the first month of the year for you. Tell all the congregation of Israel that on the tenth day of this month every man shall take a lamb according to their fathers' houses, a lamb for a household. And if the household is too small for a lamb, then he and his nearest neighbor shall take according to the number of persons; according to what each can eat you shall make your count for the lamb. Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old. You may take it from the sheep or from the goats, and you shall keep it until the fourteenth day of this month, when the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill their lambs at twilight. Then they shall take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses in which they eat it. They shall eat the flesh that night, roasted on the fire; with unleavened bread and bitter herbs they shall eat it. Do not eat any of it raw or boiled in water, but roasted, its head with its legs and its inner parts. And you shall let none of it remain until the morning; anything that remains until the morning you shall burn. In this manner you shall eat it: with your belt fastened, your sandals on your feet, and your staff in your hand. And you shall eat it in haste. It is the Lord's Passover. For I will pass through the land of Egypt that night, and I will strike all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments: for I am the Lord. The blood shall be a sign for you, on the houses where you are. And when I see the blood, I will pass over you, and no plague will befall you to destroy you, when I strike the land of Egypt.

Symbols

Don’t lose sight of these basic symbols:

  • Wine: vine➠ grapes➠ pressed➠ loss of identity➠ flesh filtered away➠ patience and endurance

  • Bread and grain, especially as Motzah (unleavened bread): seed➠ plant with seed on top➠ cut➠ threshed➠ chaff is the flesh (burned)➠ ground into flour➠ loss of identity➠ endure the fire of baking to be broken and shared

  • Blood: from the animal skins for Adam and Eve until the shedding of the blood of Jesus, blood has been required for redemption. Blood of the lamb on the doorposts in the form of the cross symbolizes our “covering” by faith. When the death angel made his rounds, faith that the blood was sufficient was all they had…similar to us…

  • Lamb: Totally pure and innocent. Even when sacrificed, it makes no resistance.

  • Leaven: Yeast…leavens the whole loaf. Yeast is the world system. We cleanse ourselves of that before we celebrate Passover…to be as God created us: innocent and “not of this world”…with very different goals and values.

  • Egypt is the world system…to whom we are enslaved in the flesh. The “king of the world” was Pharaoh, representing our minds, which are always trying to control us. Yet our minds are enmity toward God. Our minds “have their own way” and seek to save the flesh (fight or flight). In Passover and the exodus, we symbolically leave our controlling minds drowned in the Red Sea as we escape to the Promised Land.

  • Most houses in Jerusalem had an Upper Room, to house guests for the feasts.

  • The feast would have been held seated on the floor…reclining at the table.

Matthew 22 - The Parable of the Wedding Feast 1 And again Jesus spoke to them in parables, saying, 2 “The kingdom of heaven may be compared to a king who gave a wedding feast for his son, 3 and sent his servants to call those who were invited to the wedding feast, but they would not come. 4 Again he sent other servants, saying, ‘Tell those who are invited, “See, I have prepared my dinner, my oxen and my fat calves have been slaughtered, and everything is ready. Come to the wedding feast.”’ 5 But they paid no attention and went off, one to his farm, another to his business, 6 while the rest seized his servants, treated them shamefully, and killed them. 7 The king was angry, and he sent his troops and destroyed those murderers and burned their city. 8 Then he said to his servants, ‘The wedding feast is ready, but those invited were not worthy. 9 Go therefore to the main roads and invite to the wedding feast as many as you find.’ 10 And those servants went out into the roads and gathered all whom they found, both bad and good. So the wedding hall was filled with guests. 11 “But when the king came in to look at the guests, he saw there a man who had no wedding garment. 12 And he said to him, ‘Friend, how did you get in here without a wedding garment?’ And he was speechless. 13 Then the king said to the attendants, ‘Bind him hand and foot and cast him into the outer darkness. In that place there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.’ 14 For many are called, but few are chosen.”

The room is “clothed in white", for the wedding supper of the Lamb. Who is the bride? Are you clothed in white, washed clean from the blood of our Christ? Or, are you without a wedding garment, wearing your “own righteousness” the “garment spotted by the flesh”?

Luke 22:7-14 - "Then came the day of Unleavened Bread, on which the Passover lamb had to be sacrificed. So Jesus sent Peter and John, saying, “Go and prepare the Passover for us, that we may eat it.” They said to him, “Where will you have us prepare it?” He said to them, “Behold, when you have entered the city, a man carrying a jar of water will meet you. Follow him into the house that he enters and tell the master of the house, ‘The Teacher says to you, Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover with my disciples?’ And he will show you a large upper room furnished; prepare it there.” And they went and found it just as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover. And when the hour came, he reclined at table, and the apostles with him..

Why did Jesus ride a donkey…a colt…the foal of a donkey?

First, the prophet Zechariah wrote: Zechariah 9:9, “Rejoice greatly, O Daughter of Zion! Shout, Daughter of Jerusalem! See, your king comes to you, righteous and having salvation, gentle and riding on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” The messianic sign was at once perceived by the crowds who hailed Jesus as their king shouting, “Hosanna! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!" (Matthew 21:9) Catholics still shout this Davidic salutation every time the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass is celebrated. It is an acknowledgment that Jesus is the true Davidic Messiah and king.

Secondly, an ass is integral to the story of Abraham’s offering of Isaac, a type of the oblation of the First Born Son as a sign of obedience.

The third reason is that King Solomon rode to his messianic coronation on a mule that had once belonged to David (1 Kgs 1:33-44).

Fourth, King Jehu rode into Samaria (a kind of false Jerusalem) over the garments of his adherents in order to destroy the temple of the false god Baal (2 Kgs 9:11-10:28). One of the first things Christ does upon entering Jerusalem is bring judgment to the Temple which has become a den of thieves. The typology in this account is rather startling as 2 Kings 9 contains strong messianic language. Like King Jehu, Christ the King comes as a judge over ceremonial regulations.

The story of the triumphal entry is one of contrasts, and those contrasts contain applications to believers. It is the story of the King who came as a lowly servant on a donkey, not a prancing steed, not in royal robes, but on the clothes of the poor and humble. Jesus Christ comes not to conquer by force as earthly kings but by love, grace, mercy, and His own sacrifice for His people. His is not a kingdom of armies and splendor but of lowliness and servanthood. He conquers not nations but hearts and minds. His message is one of peace with God, not of temporal peace. If Jesus has made a triumphal entry into our hearts, He reigns there in peace and love. As His followers, we exhibit those same qualities, and the world sees the true King living and reigning triumphantly in each of us.


The Seder

Lighting of the Candles (Le’hadlik Ner)

A girl around 12 or 13 (Mary) will light the “Jesus” candle while we say:

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the universe, who has sanctified us with Your commandments, and has commanded us to kindle the Passover Light.

Then she lights all the other candles in the room with Jesus. Why is it tempting to help her?

Who brought the Light into the world? What is the purpose of Light? Why is this the first act of Passover!?


Seder Table Elements

Several items are present in front of you around the table:

  • Each guest should have access to a Haggadah (this document). There are many forms of Haggadah, and I have heavily edited and refined this one…but retained the important traditional elements.

  • The candles symbolize that Jesus is the light of our world.

  • Matzah (3 pieces) is covered with a white linen cloth and put under the leader's plate. This symbolizes the triune God: Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

  • Baskets of unleavened bread (matzah - poor person’s bread) showing the stripes (39 lashes) and the piercings (nails and crown of thorns), the lack of leavening, and brokenness of Jesus Christ, the Messiah. When Jesus referred to His body as the bread, this is what he meant.

  • Wine...each person is expected to drink 4 glasses during the Seder meal during the toasts (“I will bring out”, “I will deliver”, “I will redeem”, and “I will take”). Wine is the blending of our community of faith. When Jesus said the wine was his blood, this Passover wine is what he meant.

  • Salt water, representing the tears shed by slaves in Egypt, and the deliverance from Egypt at the Red Sea is used to dip the karpas.

A large plate or tray on top of the matzah, called a “Ka’arah” holds six items in front of the “Father”.

  1. Chazeret, a bitter herb, this horseradish is eaten in a sandwich later in the seder. The “bitterness of slavery” is lessened by the matzah.

  2. Beitzah, a hard-boiled egg, symbolizing the festival sacrifice that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem and roasted and eaten as part of the meal on Seder night. The egg, a symbol of mourning (as eggs are the first thing served to mourners after a funeral), evokes the idea of mourning over the destruction of the Temple and our inability to offer any kind of sacrifices in honor of the Passover holiday

  3. Zaro'ah, the roasted shank bone of a lamb or goat; symbolizing the Passover sacrifice: a lamb that was offered in the Temple in Jerusalem, then roasted and eaten as part of the meal on the Seder night. Z'roa also means "right hand" or "right arm.” Jesus is “the right arm of God”. Psalms 98:1 "Oh sing to the Lord a new song, for he has done marvelous things! His right hand and his holy arm have worked salvation for him.” John 1:29 "The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the Lamb [or Goat] of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” There is no meat on this bone because it is part of the sacrifice, and cannot now legally be eaten outside of the temple! It is there solely as a reminder. Also, the bone is not broken: Exodus 12:46 and Psalm 34:20 “Not one of his bones is broken” both speak of not breaking a bone of the Passover Lamb. Jesus’ bones were not broken while the other two crucified with Him had their legs broken to hasten their death as described in John 19:31-37.

  4. Maror, a bitter herb (usually romaine lettuce), symbolizing the bitterness and harshness of the slavery which the Hebrews endured in Egypt.

  5. Charoset, a sweet, brown mixture of chopped apple and nuts mixed with cinnamon and wine, representing the mortar used by the Jewish slaves to make bricks in Egypt. “Haroset" comes from Hebrew cheres, “clay.”

  6. Karpas, a vegetable other than bitter herbs (usually parsley or celery), which is dipped into salt water at the beginning of the Seder. The dipping of a simple vegetable into salt water (which represents tears) mirrors the pain felt by the Hebrew slaves in Egypt. This also represents the hyssop plant, which is what was used to put the blood on the doorposts and lintel of the houses.

Finally, the small table with an empty cup and flowers is for Elijah. The Jews still look for Messiah. For us, He is already present with us! But, in the Jewish tradition, we will look for him later…!-)


The 15 Steps of the Seder

The Passover Seder has 15 parts, the Hallel has fifteen Psalms, all referencing the 15 steps into the Temple.

  1. Sanctification of the Festival (Kiddush) to declare who we are and that God is the creator of all things through all of time and space.
  2. Washing of Hands (Urhatz) to prepare for eating, but originally without a blessing. This is when Jesus washed the feet of the apostles.
  3. Dipping a Vegetable in Salt Water (Karpas) to symbolize the tears and the blood shed so that we might share in the glory of God through Jesus Christ.
  4. Dividing the Middle Unleavened Bread (Yahatz) is the hiding of Christ so that he may be revealed later.
  5. Telling the Story of the Exodus (Maggid) is the most important aspect of this Feast to the Hebrews, as it recounts the story of slavery to freedom.
  6. Washing of Hands before the Meal (Rahetzah) in preparation of the eating of unleavened bread.
  7. Blessing over the Unleavened Bread (Motzi) is the blessing over the matzah.
  8. Eating the Unleavened Bread (Matzah) presents the simplicity of our faith.
  9. Eating the Bitter Herbs (Maror) presents the bitterness of making bricks without straw.
  10. Combing the Unleavened Bread and Bitter Herbs (Korech) is the last vestiges of slavery.
  11. The Festive Meal — Dinner (Shulchan Orech) is to get your fill of the world system.
  12. Revealing the Middle Unleavened Bread (Tzafun) is the revelation of Christ with, and in us.
  13. Blessing the Lord for the Festival (Barech) celebrates our total reliance and fulfillment in God.
  14. Praising the Lord for Everything (Hallel) is making our way to the Temple…in us.
  15. Acceptance of the Seder (Nirtzah) is seeing all as perfect in Him.

Sanctification of the Festival (Kiddush)

Genesis 1:31 - And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.

Genesis 2:1-3 - Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 2 And on the seventh day God finished his work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all his work that he had done. 3 So God blessed the seventh day and made it holy, because on it God rested from all his work that he had done in creation.

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has chosen us above all peoples, and has exalted us above all tongues and has hallowed us with your commandments. You have given us, Lord, our God, with love, Sabbaths for rest and Seasons for gladness. Holidays and times for rejoicing, this Sabbath day and this day of the Festival of Matzoth, the time of our freedom, with love, an assembly day of holiness, a memorial to the outgoing from Egypt. You have chosen us, sanctified us above all peoples and have caused us to inherit your Sabbath and sacred Seasons with love and good will, in gladness and rejoicing.

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has sanctified us, guarded us, kept us, and allowed us to reach this time!

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has created the fruit of the vine.

Drink all the first Cup of Sanctification. To make holy and set apart…”I will bring out”. We are to be reclining on our left sides as a sign of our freedom!


Washing (Urechatz)

Partakers wash their hands in preparation for eating wet fruit and vegetables, which happens in the next stage. Technically, according to Jewish law, whenever one partakes of fruit or vegetables dipped in liquid, one must wash one's hands, if the fruit or vegetable remains wet. However, this situation does not often arise at other times of the year because either one will dry fruits and vegetables before eating them, or one has already washed one's hands, because one must also wash one's hands before eating bread.

According to most traditions, no blessing is recited at this point in the Seder, unlike the blessing recited over the washing of the hands before eating bread.

John 13:1-20 "Now before the Feast of the Passover, when Jesus knew that his hour had come to depart out of this world to the Father, having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end. During supper, when the devil had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray him, Jesus, knowing that the Father had given all things into his hands, and that he had come from God and was going back to God, rose from supper. He laid aside his outer garments, and taking a towel, tied it around his waist. Then he poured water into a basin and began to wash the disciples' feet and to wipe them with the towel that was wrapped around him. He came to Simon Peter, who said to him, “Lord, do you wash my feet?” Jesus answered him, “What I am doing you do not understand now, but afterward you will understand.” Peter said to him, “You shall never wash my feet.” Jesus answered him,“If I do not wash you, you have no share with me.” Simon Peter said to him, “Lord, not my feet only but also my hands and my head!” Jesus said to him, “The one who has bathed does not need to wash, except for his feet, but is completely clean. And you are clean, but not every one of you.” For he knew who was to betray him; that was why he said, “Not all of you are clean.” “When he had washed their feet and put on his outer garments and resumed his place, he said to them,“Do you understand what I have done to you? You call me Teacher and Lord, and you are right, for so I am. If I then, your Lord and Teacher, have washed your feet, you also ought to wash one another's feet. For I have given you an example, that you also should do just as I have done to you. Truly, truly, I say to you, a servant is not greater than his master, nor is a messenger greater than the one who sent him. If you know these things, blessed are you if you do them. I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’ I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am He. Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever receives the one I send receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.


Dipping of the Greens (Karpas)

Each participant dips a sprig of parsley (was hissop back in the day) into either salt water (Ashkenazi custom said to serve as a reminder of the tears shed by their enslaved ancestors), vinegar (Sephardi custom) or charoset (older Sephardi custom; still common among Yemenite Jews).

Take some of the karpas (parsley or celery), dip twice into the salt water, and say:

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who does create the fruit of the soil.

Then eat. Why do you think we dip twice?

Historically the Hyssop was dipped in red wine to symbolize blood and the sacrifice of the Lamb. Hyssop was used to put the blood on the doorways of the houses at the first Passover. This practice was changed to red wine vinegar, and then to salt water to commemorate our tears of affliction in Egypt. How very Jewish! Conceivably, the salt water could symbolize the crossing of the Red Sea, but also the tears Yeshua shed over Jerusalem because of the destruction He saw coming to her. However, the suffering Jesus endured on the cross for our transgressions would be best done with the red wine…establishing the new covenant with us…which took the shedding of blood.

The House of David cites: "We know that salt is the sign of God’s eternal and everlasting promises, calling them “covenants of salt.” One He made with the house of Aaron—the priestly lineage that came through Levi, the third-born son of Israel; and the other He made with the house of David—the kingly lineage that came through the tribe of Judah. For it says, “it is a covenant of salt forever before the Lord with you (Aaron) and your descendants with you” (Numbers 18:19), and “Should you not know that the Lord God of Israel gave the dominion over Israel to David forever, to him and his sons, by a covenant of salt?” (2 Chronicles 13:5). Yeshua is the fulfillment of both covenants, for He is both the King of Israel and her high priest forever whose name is Melchizedek—translating from Hebrew; 'my King of righteousness.'"


Breaking of the Matzah (Yachatz)

Three matzot are stacked on the seder table in front of the leader. At this stage, the middle matzah of the three is broken in half. The larger piece is wrapped in linen and hidden, to be used later as the afikoman, the "dessert" after the meal. The smaller piece is returned to its place between the other two matzot.

The middle matzah (Jesus) is an extremely important aspect of the seder meal. Matzah is the Bread of Affliction (read Isaiah 53). When Jesus said his body was the bread broken for you, this is what he meant.

Raise the middle matzah and say aloud, "This is the poor bread which our fathers ate in the land of Egypt. Let anyone who is hungry, come in and eat. Let anyone who is needy, come in and make Passover. This year we are here. Next year we will be in the land of Israel. This year we are slaves. Next year we shall be free men.

The middle matzah is broken in half by the “Father”, and one half is hidden by 2-3 youths…witnessed by a young lady.

The door can be opened this one last time, to invite the poor to join the feast. It is then sealed so that the Death Angel will pass over.


The Telling (Magid)

In Egypt

In early times our ancestors were idol-worshippers, but now the All-Including has brought us near to worship of Him, as it says in Genesis 24:2-4 "And Abraham said to his servant, the oldest of his household, who had charge of all that he had,“Put your hand under my thigh, that I may make you swear by the Lord, the God of heaven and God of the earth, that you will not take a wife for my son from the daughters of the Canaanites, among whom I dwell, but will go to my country and to my kindred, and take a wife for my son Isaac.

Blessed is He who keeps his promise to Israel; blessed is He. For the Holy One, blessed is He, premeditated the end, to do even as He said to Abraham our father in the Covenant between the Sections, as it is said: “And he said to Abram: Verily know that your seed will be a stranger in a land not theirs, and they shall make them serve, and shall torment them, for four hundred years: But also the nation whom they will serve, I shall judge. Afterward, they will go forth with great wealth.

(Lift the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance and say): And this it is which has stood by our fathers and by us. For it was not one alone who rose against us to annihilate us, but in every generation there are those who rise against us to annihilate us. But the Holy One, blessed is He, ever saves us from their hand.

(Put down the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance without drinking..oy vay!). We are talking about the lineage. Satan tried many times, and almost succeeded - to one man, to wipe us out.


The Ten Plagues

Ten drops of wine….ten commandments…ten plagues… It is tradition to dip your finger into a wine cup and leave a drop of wine on the plate in front of you, as a demonstration of the finger of God against the Egyptians.

God had already planned for the ten plagues to befall Egypt, and prepared the people through Moses. Exodus 3: 19-20 reads: “19 But I know that the king of Egypt will not let you go unless compelled by a mighty hand. 20 So I will stretch out my hand and strike Egypt with all the wonders that I will do in it; after that he will let you go.

Now we review the 10 plagues (note that only the first three also impacted the Israelites), with each one ascribed to a key god of Egypt. Isaiah 2:7-9: "Their land is full of silver and gold, there is no limit to their treasure. Their land is full of horses, there is no limit to their chariots. And so their land is full of idols: they bow down to the work of their hands, to what their own fingers have wrought.

Ten is the number for “fullness of quantity” or completed-ness (see the chart at the end comparing the Plagues, the Commandments and the Ten Sayings of Creation).

God hardened Pharoah’s heart (is this fair?), so He could destroy all the gods of Egypt in the sight of the Israelites, and in our sight, but as Isaiah notes, we haven’t learned the lesson. Pharaoh is a type of our own mind/flesh. Each plague was aimed at the gods of Egypt (Mitzrayim, or the World) - which are our gods - perhaps as follows:

1) Blood (All sustenance comes from the Divine - Hapi (Apis), the bull god, god of the Nile, and Isis, goddess of the Nile, plus Khnum, ram god guardian of the Nile): the Nile sometimes becomes red at its low point, before the rains, and the fish die, which is why the magicians were able to “reproduce this plague”. Ex 7:14-25: “This is what the LORD says: By this you will know that I am the LORD: With the staff that is in my hand I will strike the water of the Nile, and it will be changed into blood. The fish in the Nile will die, and the river will stink and thus the Egyptians will not be able to drink its water.

2) Frogs (All support comes from the Divine - Heqat - goddess of birth with a frog head): most frequent when the waters begin to recede…with frogs in the marshes, etc., again, the magicians were able to “reproduce this plague”. Ex 7:25-8:11: “This is what the great LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will plague your whole country with frogs. The Nile will teem with frogs. They will come up into your palace and your bedroom and onto your bed, into the houses of your officials and on your people, and into your ovens and kneading troughs. The frogs will go up on you and your people and all your officials.

3) Lice or gnats (All integrity comes from the Divine - Set, god of the desert): Pharaoh never asked for removal of this plague, and it may still be in effect today! The magicians failed to “reproduce this plague” and all the rest. Ex8:12-15: “Then the LORD said […] "Stretch out your rod, and smite the dust of the land, that it may become lice throughout all the land of Egypt." […] When Aaron stretched out his hand with the staff and struck the dust of the ground, gnats came upon men and animals. All the dust throughout the land of Egypt became lice.

4) Flies (All endurance comes from the Divine - Re, the sun god, or Uatchit who looks like a fly): as the Nile recedes the flies swarm like a plague every year, which is why Pharaoh may have been “half-hearted” in his willingness to say this was a miracle. Ex 8:20-32: “This is what the LORD says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you do not let my people go, I will send swarms of flies upon you and your officials, on your people and into your houses. The houses of the Egyptians will be full of flies, and even the ground where they are.

5) Pestilence (Murrain) (All beauty comes from the Divine - Hathor, goddess with the cow head): the cattle of the Egyptians suffered a plague spread by insects. Ex 9:1-7: “This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: "Let my people go, so that they may worship me." If you refuse to let them go and continue to hold them back, the hand of the LORD will bring a terrible plague on your livestock in the field—on your horses and donkeys and camels and on your cattle and sheep and goats.

6) Boils and Sores (All justice comes from the Divine - Sekhmet, goddess with power over disease, Sunu, the pestilence god, Isis, goddess of healing): this was probably the milder form of bubonic plague, may have come from the cattle. Ex9:8-12: “The sixth plague of Egypt was Shkhin. The Shkhin was a kind of skin disease, usually translated as "boils". God commanded Moses and Aaron to each take two handfuls of soot from a furnace, which Moses scattered skyward in Pharaoh's presence. The soot induced festering Shkhin eruptions on Egyptian men and livestock. The Egyptian sorcerers were afflicted along with everyone else, and were unable to heal themselves, much less the rest of Egypt.

7) Hail mixed with Fire (All mercy comes from the Divine - Nut, the sky goddess, Osiris, god of crops and fertility, Set, god of storms): rare, but not unknown in Egypt. God forewarned the Israelites so that they could be spared. Ex 9:13-35: “This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: Let my people go, so that they may worship me, or this time I will send the full force of my plagues against you and against your officials and your people, so you may know that there is no one like me in all the earth. For by now I could have stretched out my hand and struck you and your people with a plague that would have wiped you off the earth. But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth. You still set yourself against my people and will not let them go. Therefore, at this time tomorrow I will send the worst hailstorm that has ever fallen on Egypt, from the day it was founded till now. Give an order now to bring your livestock and everything you have in the field to a place of shelter, because the hail will fall on every man and animal that has not been brought in and is still out in the field, and they will die. […] The LORD sent thunder and hail, and lightning flashed down to the ground. So the LORD rained hail on the land of Egypt; hail fell and lightning flashed back and forth. It was the worst storm in all the land of Egypt since it had become a nation.

8) Locusts (All understanding comes from the Divine - Nut, the sky goddess, Osiris, god of crops and fertility (same as hail)): the servants of Pharaoh tried to stop this one by persuading Pharaoh to let the Israelites go…but Pharaoh would not. Ex 10:1-20: “This is what the LORD, the God of the Hebrews, says: 'How long will you refuse to humble yourself before me? Let my people go, so that they may worship me. If you refuse to let them go, I will bring locusts into your country tomorrow. They will cover the face of the ground so that it cannot be seen. They will devour what little you have left after the hail, including every tree that is growing in your fields. They will fill your houses and those of all your officials and all the Egyptians—something neither your fathers nor your forefathers have ever seen from the day they settled in this land till now.

9) Darkness (All wisdom comes from the Divine - Re, the sun god, Horus, a sun god, Nut, the sky goddess, Hathor, the sky goddess): Darkness that could be felt!! Ex 10:21-29 “Then the LORD said to Moses, "Stretch out your hand toward the sky so that darkness will spread over Egypt—darkness that can be felt." So Moses stretched out his hand toward the sky, and total darkness covered all Egypt for three days. No one could see anyone else or leave his place for three days.

10) Death of the Firstborn (All life and death comes from the Divine - Min, god of reproduction, Heqet, goddess who attended women at childbirth, Isis, goddess of children, Pharaoh’s son, a god): Ex 11:1-12:36: “This is what the LORD says: 'About midnight I will go throughout Egypt. Every firstborn in Egypt will die, from the firstborn son of Pharaoh, who sits on the throne, to the firstborn of the slave girl, who is at her hand mill, and all the firstborn of the cattle as well. There will be loud wailing throughout Egypt—worse than there has ever been or ever will be again. [...] But not a dog shall growl against any of the people of Israel, either man or beast, that you may know that the LORD makes a distinction between Egypt and Israel.

It appears that God used natural phenomena which still exist in Egypt in the same order, and, when they do occur, find place somewhere during the course of one year. HOWEVER, each of them was 1) grossly intensified, 2) predicted very accurately, 3) discriminatory to the Egyptians, 4) increasingly severe, 5) and arranged with a divine, moral purpose to a) discredit the gods of Egypt, b) to force Pharaoh to see God as Lord, c) reveal God as Savior, exhibit the divine use of “evil”. So, like Creation itself, God uses natural means to make his points…much like He took on the form of a man to save us all!


The Israelites plundered the Egyptians of gold, silver, and clothing before Plague 10 (Exo. 11:2-3), so that they would ready to go out with the riches of Egypt. Israel slew the Passover lambs in the afternoon of Abib 14, "between the two evenings." Afterward, the blood was collected and put on the lintel and doorposts of the Israelites' houses (Exo. 12:6-7).

At sunset, as Abib 15 began, the Israelites went indoors and prepared the Passover meal - lamb roasted in the fire, with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. The first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread had begun at sundown (Exo. 12:8, 17).

The Israelites ate the Passover meal in haste on the night of Abib 15. According to God's command, they ate it with their belts on their waists, their sandals on their feet, and their staffs in their hands. They were ready to move out quickly (Exo. 12:11).

After the Passover meal was finished, the remains of the lambs were burned according to God's instructions (Exo. 12:10).

During the night, the death angel went throughout the land of Egypt, killing all the firstborn (people and animals) except those protected by the blood of the lambs (Exo. 12:12, 29). But think of the faith it took to stay inside with all the wailing going on when the Death Angel was at work! That is the fear of God.

Pharaoh summoned Moses and Aaron soon after the tenth plague struck. He ordered the Israelites to leave the country. The surviving Egyptians also strongly urged them to leave quickly; they feared that they would all be killed if the Israelites remained (Exo. 12:30-33).

The Egyptians essentially drove the Israelites out of the land of Rameses (Goshen) during the night or early morning of Abib 15 (Exo. 12:34, 37; Num. 33:3; Deu. 16:1). As they boldly traveled out of Rameses toward Succoth during the daylight portion of Abib 15, the Israelites observed the Egyptians burying those killed by the previous night's plague (Num. 33:3-4), beating their chests in mourning.

Then the Israelites camped and baked unleavened bread from the dough they had brought out of Egypt. It was unleavened because they were driven out of Egypt hurriedly. They hadn't had time to prepare provisions for themselves (Exo. 12:37-39; Num. 33:5).

To the Red Sea…

Exodus 14:2 - “Tell the people of Israel to turn back and encamp in front of Pi-hahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, in front of Baal-zephon; you shall encamp facing it, by the sea.”. “Pi-hahiroth” is “Place of Liberty from bondage”. “Migdol” signifies “a tower” or “fortress.” “Baal-zephon” means “Lord of the North”, and in scripture the “north” is frequently associated with judgment (cf. Joshua 8:11, 13; Isaiah 14:31; Jeremiah 1:14; 4:6; 6:1 Ezekiel 1:4, etc.). It was as the Lord of Judgment that God was here seen at the Red Sea.

Exodus 14:3 - “For Pharaoh will say of the people of Israel, ‘They are wandering in the land; the wilderness has shut them in.’” Israel were “entangled in the land” and “shut in” by the wilderness…they were trapped before the Red Sea. Did Pharaoh suppose that they would fall now as easy victims before him? What of Israel’s God? Had God not already shown Himself strong on Israel’s behalf? Had God not already shown Egypt what would happen to those who persecuted His covenant people? Exodus 14:4 - “And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and he will pursue them, and I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his host, and the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord.” And they did so.” There was one part of Egypt’s strength, their chief glory, which had so far escaped. Their triumphant army had not yet been touched.

Exodus 14:5 "When the king of Egypt was told that the people had fled, the mind of Pharaoh and his servants was changed toward the people, and they said, “What is this we have done, that we have let Israel go from serving us?” 6 So he made ready his chariot and took his army with him, 7 and took six hundred chosen chariots and all the other chariots of Egypt with officers over all of them. 8 And the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued the people of Israel while the people of Israel were going out defiantly. 9 The Egyptians pursued them, all Pharaoh's horses and chariots and his horsemen and his army, and overtook them encamped at the sea, by Pi-hahiroth, in front of Baal-zephon.

10 When Pharaoh drew near, the people of Israel lifted up their eyes, and behold, the Egyptians were marching after them, and they feared greatly. And the people of Israel cried out to the Lord. 11 They said to Moses, “Is it because there are no graves in Egypt that you have taken us away to die in the wilderness? What have you done to us in bringing us out of Egypt? 12 Is not this what we said to you in Egypt: ‘Leave us alone that we may serve the Egyptians’? For it would have been better for us to serve the Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.” 13 And Moses said to the people, “Fear not, stand firm, and see the salvation of the Lord, which he will work for you today. For the Egyptians whom you see today, you shall never see again. 14 The Lord will fight for you, and you have only to be silent.”

15 The Lord said to Moses, “Why do you cry to me? Tell the people of Israel to go forward.16 Lift up your staff, and stretch out your hand over the sea and divide it, that the people of Israel may go through the sea on dry ground. 17 And I will harden the hearts of the Egyptians so that they shall go in after them, and I will get glory over Pharaoh and all his host, his chariots, and his horsemen. 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I have gotten glory over Pharaoh, his chariots, and his horsemen.

19 Then the angel of God who was going before the host of Israel moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them, 20 coming between the host of Egypt and the host of Israel. And there was the cloud and the darkness. And it lit up the night without one coming near the other all night.

21 Then Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the Lord drove the sea back by a strong east wind all night and made the sea dry land, and the waters were divided. 22 And the people of Israel went into the midst of the sea on dry ground, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left. 23 The Egyptians pursued and went in after them into the midst of the sea, all Pharaoh's horses, his chariots, and his horsemen. 24 And in the morning watch the Lord in the pillar of fire and of cloud looked down on the Egyptian forces and threw the Egyptian forces into a panic, 25 clogging[b] their chariot wheels so that they drove heavily. And the Egyptians said, “Let us flee from before Israel, for the Lord fights for them against the Egyptians.

26 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand over the sea, that the water may come back upon the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horsemen.” 27 So Moses stretched out his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to its normal course when the morning appeared. And as the Egyptians fled into it, the Lord threw[c] the Egyptians into the midst of the sea. 28 The waters returned and covered the chariots and the horsemen; of all the host of Pharaoh that had followed them into the sea, not one of them remained. 29 But the people of Israel walked on dry ground through the sea, the waters being a wall to them on their right hand and on their left.

30 Thus the Lord saved Israel that day from the hand of the Egyptians, and Israel saw the Egyptians dead on the seashore. 31 Israel saw the great power that the Lord used against the Egyptians, so the people feared the Lord, and they believed in the Lord and in his servant Moses.

The Red Sea completely destroyed the power of Pharaoh (Satan) over God’s people. Hebrews 2:14 gives us the antitype—”That through death [Jesus] might destroy him that had the power of death, that is, the Devil.”

The Four Questions (Ma Nishtanah)

At this point in the Seder, Moroccan Jews have a custom of raising the Seder plate over the heads of all those present while chanting "Bivhilu yatzanu mimitzrayim, halahma anya b'nei horin" (In haste we went out of Egypt [with our] bread of affliction, [now we are] free people).

The matzot are uncovered, and referred to as the "bread of affliction". Participants declare in Aramaic an invitation to all who are hungry or needy to join in the Seder. Halakha requires that this invitation be repeated in the native language of the country.

Pour the second cup of wine… the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance (the scourge of the first 3 commandments, and the deliverance from bondage: “I will free you from being slaves”)…“I will deliver”.

The Mishnah details questions one is obligated to ask on the night of the Seder. It is customary for the youngest child present to recite the four questions. Some customs hold that the other participants recite them quietly to themselves as well. In some families, this means that the requirement remains on an adult "child" until a grandchild of the family receives sufficient Jewish education to take on the responsibility. If a person has no children capable of asking, the responsibility falls to the spouse, or another participant. The need to ask is so great that even if a person is alone at the seder he is obligated to ask himself and to answer his own questions.

The traditional Haggadah speaks of "four sons—one who is wise, one who is wicked, one who is simple, and one who does not know to ask". The number four derives from the four passages in the Torah where one is commanded to explain the Exodus to one's son. Each of these sons phrases his question about the seder in a different way. The Haggadah recommends answering each son according to his question, using one of the three verses in the Torah that refer to this exchange.

The youngest male who can read asks (Narrator appoints the reader): “Why is this night different from all other nights? On all other nights, we eat leavened bread; on this night, we eat only Matzah. On all other nights, we eat all kinds of herbs; on this night, we eat mainly bitters. On all other nights, we do not dip even once; on this night, we dip twice. On all other nights, we eat sitting straight; on this night we all recline at the table.

Why, Because we were slaves under Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Lord, our God, took us out from there with a strong and outstretched arm. Now, if the Holy One, blessed is He, had not taken us out from there, then we and our children, and our children’s children, would still be enslaved under Pharaoh in Egypt. Though we were all wise, all understanding, all aged, all learned in the Torah, we should still be commanded to tell the story of the outgoing from Egypt. And whoever enlarges upon the tale of the outgoing from Egypt, that one merits praise!

The salt water into which we dip the parsley (karpas) represents the tears we cried while in Egypt. But most importantly, it reminds us of the Hyssop that was dipped into vinegar and given to Yeshua while He hung on the cross.

The unleavened bread (matzah), also called the bread of affliction and the bread of slaves and the poor, reminds us that the bread did not have time to rise when the Israelites hastily left Egypt. But it most importantly reminds us of the sinless body of Yeshua that was afflicted for our sin.

The lamb shank was required to be roasted on the altar of sacrifice. But it most importantly reminds us of the true Lamb of God, Jesus, who gave His sinless body as a sacrifice for our sin.

The bitter herbs (maror) remind us of the bitterness of slavery in Egypt, and of the bitterness of sin and death. But it most importantly reminds us of the vinegar that was dipped in Hyssop—which is a bitter herb—and how Jesus took upon Himself our bitterness, which was in sin and death.

By reclining, we commemorate our freedom from slavery and death. We are now dining in the presence of the King, Yeshua, resting on His chest—close to His heart like the Apostle, John.

We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Lord, our God, took us out from there with a strong hand and with an outstretched arm. If the Holy One, blessed be He, had not taken our fathers out of Egypt, then we, our children and our children's children would have remained enslaved to Pharaoh in Egypt. Even if all of us were wise, all of us understanding, all of us knowing the Word of God, we would still be obligated to discuss the exodus from Egypt; and everyone who discusses the exodus from Egypt at length is praiseworthy.”

It happened, that Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah, Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Tarfon, were reclining at the Seder table in Bnei Brak, and discussing the Exodus all through the night, until their students came and told them: Our teachers, the time has arrived for the morning (dawn) recital of the Shema — Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one! (Deuteronomy 6:4).

Said Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah: I am like a man of seventy in wisdom, yet I could not find a biblical passage to support that one must mention the Exodus every night, until Ben Zoma explained it; as it says, In order to remember the day you came out of the land of Egypt all the days of your life. All the days of your life implies remembering every day, and all the days of your life includes the nights. The sages say, ‘the days of your life’ implies our present world, and ‘all the days of your life’ includes the future time of the Messiah.

Therefore, behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, that it shall no more be said, The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt, but, The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north and from all the lands where He had driven them. For I will bring them back into their land which I gave to their fathers” (Jeremiah 16:14-15).

The House of David adds:

Rabbi Elazar ben Azaryah says that we must remember the day we came out of Egypt, every day and all the days of our lives. The sages then added, 'The days of your life' implies our present world, and includes the future time of the Messiah. Rabbi Ben Zoma further asserted that in the future—based on Jeremiah’s word—Israel will cease to mention the exodus from Egypt. This does not imply that the exodus would not be mentioned, but rather the deliverance from the great exile of Israel to the nations of the earth shall take precedence, and would be an even greater deliverance than Egypt. The other implication is that Israel’s restoration remains incomplete.

The Haggadah asserts that God has calculated the end. This phrase is commonly used by the rabbis to refer to the end of the age and the coming of the Messiah. In prophetic literature this is called “the Day of the Lord.” The rabbis understand that Israel will endure incredible persecution before the arrival of the Messiah. The prophet Jeremiah called it “the time of Jacob’s trouble.” Therefore, the Seder is as much prospective as it is retrospective, and is even more about the future deliverance of Israel than just the remembrance of the past. Its prophetic quality requires us to view the trials of Israel from the exodus through our present day, and into the future itself."

Jesus warned His disciples when He said, “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will be hated by all nations for My name’s sake” (Matthew 24:9). And Peter said, “Beloved, do not think it strange concerning the fiery trial which is to try you, as though some strange thing happened to you; but rejoice to the extent that you partake of Christ’s sufferings, that when His glory is revealed, you may also be glad with exceeding joy” (1 Peter 4:12-13)."

Blessed is the All-Including, blessed is He who gave the Torah to His people, Israel.

The Torah has spoken concerning four sons - one wise, one wicked, one simple and one who is afraid to ask.

What says the wise son? (Narrator picks a wise son)

Wise Son: What are the testimonies and laws and behaviors that the Lord our God has commanded you for the Passover?

We are following these practices of the Passover: one does not break up the Passover ceremony by announcing “To the after-meal entertainment!”

What says the wicked son? (Narrator picks a wicked son)

Wicked Son: Of what use is this service to YOU?

To ME, and not to YOU?! By excluding yourself from the Community, you have denied the Deity. Set your teeth on edge! “I do this because of what the Lord did for me when I went forth from Egypt.” For me, and not for you; had you been there, you would not have been redeemed!

What says the simple son? (Narrator picks a simple son)

Simple Son: What is this all about?

With might of hand, the Lord takes us out of Egypt, from the house of slavery.

But for the Son Who Will Not Ask - as it is said: “And you shall tell your son on that day, saying: ‘This is because of what the Lord did for me when I went forth from Egypt.’”

Balad of the Four Sons

This is definitely not part of a normal Haggadah…but it gets the point across (to the tune of "Oh My Darling Clementine"):

Said the father to his children,
"At the Seder you will dine,
You will eat your fill of Matza,
You will drink four cups of wine."

Now this father had no daughters,
But his sons, they numbered four.
One was wise and one was wicked.
One was simple and a bore.

But the fourth was sweet and winsome.
He was young and he was small.
While his brothers asked the questions
He could barely speak at all.

Said the wise son to his father,
"Will you please explain the laws
Of the customs of the Seder?
Will you please explain the cause?"

And the father proudly answered,
"Cause our forefathers ate in speed,
Ate the Paschal lamb ‘ere midnight
And from slavery they were freed."

Then did sneer the son so wicked,
"What does all this mean to YOU?"
And the father's voice was bitter
As his grief and anger grew.

"If YOURSELF you don't consider
As a son of Is-ra-el,
Then for you this has no meaning;
You could be a slave as well."

Then the simple son said softly,
"What is this?" And quietly,
The good father told his offspring,
"We were freed from slavery."

But the youngest son was silent,
For he could not ask at all,
And his eyes were bright with wonder
As he sat and heard it all.

So dear children, heed the lesson,
And remember evermore,
What the father told his children,
Told his sons that numbered four.


It would suffice us (Dayenu)

(The earliest full text of this song occurs in the first medieval haggadah, which is part of the ninth-century Seder Rav Amram). After every recitation, say "It would suffice us!"

How many are the goodly favors for which we are indebted to the All-Including!
Had He taken us out of Egypt, and not wreaked judgments upon them,
Had He wreaked judgments upon them, and not upon their gods,
Had He wreaked judgments upon their gods, and not killed their firstborn,
Had He killed their firstborn, and not given us their riches,
Had He given us their riches, and not split the sea for us,
Had He split the sea for us, and not let us pass through it in the dry,
Had He let us pass through it in the dry, and not sunk our foes in it,
Had He sunk our foes in it, and not satisfied our needs in the desert for 40 years,
Had He satisfied our needs in the desert for 40 years, and not fed us on manna,
Had He fed us on manna, and not given us the Sabbath,
Had He given us the Sabbath, and not brought us near Him at Mount Sinai,
Had He brought us near Him at Mount Sinai, and had not given us the Torah,
Had He given us the Torah, and not brought us into the land of Israel,
Had me brought us into the land of Israel, and had not built for us the Chosen House, the Holy Temple.

How much greater then is our indebtedness to the All-Including for the multiple and manifold good He has given us! For He took us out of Egypt, and wreaked judgments upon them and upon their gods, and killed their firstborn, and gave us their riches, and split the sea for us, and let us pass through it in the dry, and sank our foes in it, and satisfied our needs in the desert for forty years, and fed us on manna, and gave us the Sabbath, and brought us near Him at Mount Sinai, and gave us the Torah, and brought us into the land of Israel, and built for us the Chosen House to atone for all our iniquities.


The Three Essentials

Rabban Gamliel used to say: Whoever does not discuss the following three things on Passover has not fulfilled his duty, namely:

  1. Passover Sacrifice (the Passover-sacrifice),
  2. Matzah (the unleavened bread) and
  3. Maror (the bitter herbs).

Passover Sacrifice - Leader raises the lamb shank and says:

Why did our fathers eat the Passover Offering during the period of the Temple? It is because the Holy One, Blessed be He, passed over the houses of our fathers in Egypt, as it says in Exodus 12:27 "you shall say, ‘It is the sacrifice of the Lord's Passover, for he passed over the houses of the people of Israel in Egypt, when he struck the Egyptians but spared our houses.’” And the people bowed their heads and worshiped.

Matzah - Leader raises the Matzah and says:

Why do we eat this matzah? Because the dough of our fathers did not have time to become leavened before the King of the kings of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed Himself to them and redeemed them. As it says in Exodus 12:39 "And they baked unleavened cakes of the dough that they had brought out of Egypt, for it was not leavened, because they were thrust out of Egypt and could not wait, nor had they prepared any provisions for themselves.

Bitter herbs" - Leader raises the Maror and says:

Why do we eat this bitter herb? It is because the Egyptians embittered the lives of our fathers in Egypt, as it says in Exodus 1:14 “and made their lives bitter with hard service, in mortar and brick, and in all kinds of work in the field. In all their work they ruthlessly made them work as slaves." In every generation people must see themselves as they had personally come out of Egypt, as it says in Exodus 13:8 "You shall tell your son on that day, ‘It is because of what the Lord did for me when I came out of Egypt.’" It was not only our fathers whom the Holy One redeemed from slavery; we, too, were redeemed with them, as it says in Deuteronomy 6:23 "And he brought us out from there, that he might bring us in and give us the land that he swore to give to our fathers.

Lift the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance.

Therefore it is our duty to thank, praise, laud, glorify, uplift, extol, bless, exalt, and adore Him, who did all of these miracles for our fathers and for ourselves. He brought us forth from slavery to freedom, from sorrow to joy, from mourning to festive day, from darkness to great light, and from subjection to redemption. Let us then recite before Him a new song! Hallelujah, praise God!

Put down the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance (do not drink).


Psalm 113 (Praise Ye the Lord):

Psalm 114 (Tremble and Moan):


Lift the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who has redeemed us, and has redeemed our fathers from Egypt, and has enabled us to live to this night, to partake on it of Matzah and bitters. So may the Lord our God and the God of our fathers let us live to other Festive Seasons and Holidays, which shall come to meet us in peace. Happy in the upbuilding of Your city and joyous in Your worship, may we there eat of the Feasts and Passover Sacrifices, whose blood shall reach the wall of thine altar for acceptance. And may we thank You with a new song for our redemption and the liberation of our soul. Blessed are you, Lord, who redeems Israel.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who creates the fruit of the vine.

Drink the Cup of Judgement and Deliverance (finally!). Why did we lift but not drink this cup four times? Is deliverance frequently delayed!!??

I am the vine, you are the branches. He who abides in Me, and I in him, bears much fruit; for without Me you can do nothing” (John 15:5).


Ritual Washing of Hands (Rohtzah)

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has hallowed us with your commandments and has commanded us concerning the washing of hands.

Wash hands a second time, in preparation for Matzah.

Motzi Matzah - Blessing over the Bread

Break pieces from the top matzah.

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who does bring forth bread from the earth.

Most assuredly, I say to you, unless a grain of wheat falls into the ground and dies, it remains alone; but if it dies, it produces much grain. He who loves his life will lose it, and he who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life” (John 12:24-25).

Do not eat the matzah yet…

Motzi Matzah - Eating of Unleavened Bread

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has hallowed us with your commandments and has commanded us concerning the eating of Matzah.

The leader should distribute to everyone, and all should eat a small piece of the upper and middle matzah.


Bitters (Maror)

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has hallowed us with your commandments and has commanded us concerning the eating of bitters.

A bit of romaine with olive sized bit of Haroseth is eaten. This is the bitterness of making bricks. The Haroseth is the mortar.


Egypt (Koreich)

Take two small pieces of Matzah and make a “horseradish sandwich”. Be careful!!


Festive Meal (Shulchan Orech)

Break for a full meal, with youthful entertainment - The children can re-enact the 10 commandments…or do a Passover Chronology Review


Afikoman (Tzafun)

The afikoman, which was hidden earlier in the Seder is now sought by the younger children. This is Israel looking for their Messiah. And, of course, He is found among them, in a very common place, but hidden from popular view.

Once found, each participant receives at least an olive-sized portion of that matzo to be eaten as afikoman. After the consumption of the afikoman, traditionally, no other food may be eaten for the rest of the night. Additionally, no intoxicating beverages may be consumed, with the exception of the remaining two cups of wine.

This part of the traditional seder had no blessing or language attached, as if it was waiting to be completed. Remember now that it had been 400 years since Israel had a prophet. In a sense, God was “hidden” from them. Yet they knew that the Messiah would be found, and even expected him at the time of Jesus. So, it is fitting that when everyone is finished eating (everyone is “sated”), the “hidden” Matzah is found by 2-3 youths (teenagers are best). It is then broken for us, and received from the “Father” (through Jesus).

Luke 22:14) And when the hour was come, he sat down, and the twelve apostles with him. 15) And he said to them, With desire I have wanted to eat this passover with you before I suffer: 16) For I say to you, I will not any more eat thereof, until it be fulfilled in the kingdom of God. 17) And he took the cup, and gave thanks, and said, Take this, and divide it among yourselves: 18) For I say to you, I will not drink of the fruit of the vine, until the kingdom of God shall come. 19) And he took bread, and gave thanks, and broke it, and gave to them, saying, This is my body which is given for you: this do in remembrance of me. 20) Likewise also the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood…

Mark 14:28) … which is shed for [you and for] many for the remission of sins.

Then, “the worm turned…”

John 13:21-30 "After saying these things, Jesus was troubled in his spirit, and testified, “Truly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me.” The disciples looked at one another, uncertain of whom he spoke. One of his disciples, whom Jesus loved, was reclining at table at Jesus' side, so Simon Peter motioned to him to ask Jesus of whom he was speaking. So that disciple, leaning back against Jesus, said to him, “Lord, who is it?” Jesus answered,“It is he to whom I will give this morsel when I have dipped it.” So when he had dipped the morsel, he gave it to Judas, the son of Simon Iscariot. Then after he had taken the morsel, Satan entered into him. Jesus said to him,“What you are going to do, do quickly.” Now no one at the table knew why he said this to him. Some thought that, because Judas had the moneybag, Jesus was telling him, “Buy what we need for the feast,” or that he should give something to the poor. So, after receiving the morsel, he immediately went out. And it was night."

(See also Mark 14:12-21 and Matthew 26:17-25)


Blessing After the Meal (Bareich)

Fill the 3rd Cup of wine (Cup of Redemption). ”I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with mighty acts of judgment."

Psalm 126: A"When the Lord restored the fortunes of Zion, we were like those who dream. Then our mouth was filled with laughter, and our tongue with shouts of joy; then they said among the nations, “The Lord has done great things for them.” The Lord has done great things for us; we are glad. Restore our fortunes, O Lord, like streams in the Negeb! Those who sow in tears shall reap with shouts of joy! He who goes out weeping, bearing the seed for sowing, shall come home with shouts of joy, bringing his sheaves with him."

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who does feed the entire world with His goodness, with grace, with lovingkindness and with pity. He gives bread to all flesh, for His lovingkindness endures forever. And in His great goodness, food has not been and shall not be lacking for us, forever and aye, for the sake of His great name, for He feeds and supports all, and does good to all, and prepares food for all His creatures which He did create. Blessed are You, O Lord, our God, who feeds all.

Psalm 34:9-10: “Oh, fear the Lord, you his saints, for those who fear him have no lack! The young lions suffer want and hunger; but those who seek the Lord lack no good thing. Thank the Lord for He is good, for His mercy endures forever. You open your hand, and do satisfy every living thing with love. Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord, and the Lord does become his trust. I have been a boy, I have now grown old, and I have never seen a just man forsaken, and his children wanting bread. The Lord will give strength to His people with peace.

Blessed are You, Lord, our God, King of the universe, benevolent God, our Father, our King, our Might, our Creator, our Redeemer, our Maker, our Holy One, the Holy One of Jacob, our Shepherd, the Shepherd of Israel, the King who is good and does good to all, each and every day. He has done good for us, He does good for us, and He will do good for us; He has bestowed, He bestows, and He will forever bestow upon us grace, kindness and mercy, relief, salvation and success, blessing and help, consolation, sustenance and nourishment, compassion, life, peace and all goodness; and may He never cause us to lack any good.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, who does create the fruit of the vine.

Drink the Cup of Redemption (the 3rd cup)

1 Corinthians 11:25-26 says "In the same manner He also took the cup after supper, saying, This cup is the new covenant in My blood. This do, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of Me. For as often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord's death till He comes."


The Cup of Elijah

Messianic expectations run very high among the Jewish people especially at Passover time. The children of the house then make a ritual of going and looking closely at the cup, to see if Elijah has come and sipped some. One of the children goes to the door, opens it, and looks for Elijah. Everyone says, “Blessed is he who comes in the name of the LORD!” and “Hosannah in the Highest!” Where have we heard that before?

Elijah's cup is poured…he will be coming first to restore all things in anticipation of the Messiah!


Hallel


Pour the fourth cup of wine. This is the Cup of Hope, Praise and Completion.

Exodus 6:6-7: "Say therefore to the people of Israel, ‘I am the Lord, and I will bring you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and I will deliver you from slavery to them, and I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with great acts of judgment. I will take you to be my people, and I will be your God, and you shall know that I am the Lord your God, who has brought you out from under the burdens of the Egyptians."

Psalms 113 and 114 have already been read (sung). It is now time to finish the Hallel.

Psalm 115 (Unto Us):

Psalm 116 (I Love You Lord):

Psalm 117 (Praise the Lord):

Psalm 118 (His Love is Everlasting):


Psalm 135, Psalm 136: After each recitation, say "For his mercy endures forever"
Give thanks to the LORD; for he is good…
Give thanks to the God of gods…
Give thanks to the Lord of lords…
To him who alone does great wonders…
To him that by wisdom made the heavens…
To him that stretched out the earth above the waters…
To him that made great lights…
The sun to rule by day…
The moon and stars to rule by night…
To him that smote Egypt in their firstborn…
And brought out Israel from among them…
With a strong hand, and with a stretched out arm…
To him which divided the Red sea into parts…
And made Israel to pass through the midst of it…
But overthrew Pharaoh and his host in the Red sea…
To him which led his people through the wilderness…
To him which smote great kings…
And slew famous kings…
Sihon the king of the Amorites…
And Og the king of Bashan…
And gave their land for an heritage…
Even an heritage to Israel his servant…
Who remembered us in our low estate…
And has redeemed us from our enemies…
Who gives food to all flesh…
O give thanks to the God of heaven…

Blessed are you, O Lord, our God, King of the Universe, who has created the fruit of the vine.

Drink the Cup of Hope, Praise and Completion (the 4th and final cup)…”I will take”

1 Corinthians 15:20 says "But now Christ is risen from the dead, and has become the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep” (1 Corinthians 15:20).

1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 says "For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of an archangel, and with the trumpet of God. And the dead in Christ will rise first. Then we who are alive and remain shall be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in the air. And thus we shall always be with the Lord”.

Blessed are you, O Lord our God, King of the Universe, for the vine, and the fruit of the vine, and for the yields of the fields, and for the good, wide, lovely land, which You have willed to give as an inheritance to our fathers, to eat of its fruit and to be filled with its good. For You are the Lord, who is good and does good to all. And we thank You for the land and for the fruit of the vine. Blessed are you, O Lord, for the land and for the fruit of the vine.


Who Knows One? (optional)

(Echad Mi Yodea is believed to have originated in Germany in the 15th century)
Each verse is recited with a single breath!!


Who knows one?
I know one.
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows two?
I know two.
Two are the tablets of the covenant (1);
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows three?
I know three.
Three are the Fathers (2)
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows four?
I know four.
Four are the Mothers (3)
Three are the Fathers; 

Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows five?
I know five.
Five are the books of the Tor-ah (4);
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows six?
I know six.
Six are the books of the Mish-nah (5);
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows seven?
I know seven.
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows eight?
I know eight.
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows nine?
I know nine.
Nine are the months of pregnancy;
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows ten?
I know ten.
Ten are the Ten Commandments (6);
Nine are the months of pregnancy;
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows eleven?
I know eleven.
Eleven are the stars of Joseph's dream;
Ten are the Ten Commandments;
Nine are the months of pregnancy;
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows twelve?
I know twelve.
Twelve are the tribes of Israel; (7)
Eleven are the stars of Joseph's dream;
Ten are the Ten Commandments;
Nine are the months of pregnancy;
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth.


Who knows thirteen?
I know thirteen.
Thirteen are the attributes of divinity (8);
Twelve are the tribes of Israel;
Eleven are the stars of Joseph's dream;
Ten are the Ten Commandments;
Nine are the months of pregnancy;
Eight are the days of circumcision;
Seven are the days of the Sabbath-count;
Six are the books of the Mish-nah;
Five are the books of the Tor-ah;
Four are the Mothers;
Three are the Fathers;
Two are the tablets of the covenant;
One is our God, in the heavens and the earth!!!

NOTES of explanation:

  1. Moses held the two tablets on which God wrote the Ten commandments.
  2. Fathers: Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
  3. Mothers: Rachel, Leah, Bilhah and Zilpah.
  4. Books of the Torah: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy.
  5. Books of the Mishna: Seeds, Appointments, Women, Moral laws, Civil Laws and Purity.
  6. Exodus 20
  7. Twelve tribes of Israel (sons of Jacob): Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Dan, Naphtali, Gad, Asher, Issachar, Zebulun, Joseph, and Benjamin. Joseph is split into the half-tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh.
  8. Thirteen attributes of Divinity: 1) Eternal, 2) Merciful to grant resistance to temptations, 3) Merciful to preserve the righteous, 4) Merciful in lessening temptation, 5) Compassionate, Slow to anger, 7) Abundant in kindness, 8) Truth - fulfills promises, 9) Preserver of kindness for thousands of generations, 10) Forgiver of iniquity (due to lust or desire), 11) Forgiver of transgression (defying God), 12) Forgiver of sin (unintentional), 13) He who erases and does not erase (penitent / impenitent) - Exodus 34:6-7

One Kid (Chad Gadya) (optional)

First appeared in a Haggadah printed in Prague in 1590, which makes this the most recent inclusion in the traditional Passover seder liturgy. Fun, it also has historical significance that is worth researching, if you are so inclined.

DO EACH VERSE IN A SINGLE BREATH!


One kid, one kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came a cat
And ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came a dog
And bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came a stick
And beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came a fire
And burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came water
And quenched the fire
That burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came an ox
And drank the water
That quenched the fire
That burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!


Then came a butcher
And butchered the ox
That drank the water
That quenched the fire
That burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then came the angel of death
And killed the butcher
That butchered the ox
That drank the water
That quenched the fire
That burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Then the Holy One, Blessed be He
Came and killed the angel of death
That killed the butcher
That butchered the ox
That drank the water
That quenched the fire
That burned the stick
That beat the dog
That bit the cat
That ate the kid
That my father bought for two zuzim
One kid, one kid!

Now breathe!!!!!!

Any further comments are welcome…


Closing (Nirtzah)

So end the act of the Passover night,
Each law and custom kept [almost] right.
As we've lived to do it without stain,
God grant we do it time and again.
Pure One, Dweller in height august,
Raise up the folk of countless dust!
Soon lead the stem-shoots of your ward,
Redeemed and singing Zionward!
Next year in [the New] Jerusalem!
Lochiem - Go in peace!

Revelation 21:2-4 says "Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from heaven saying, "Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and He will dwell with them, and they shall be His people. God Himself will be with them and be their God. And God will wipe away every tear from their eyes; there shall be no more death, nor sorrow, nor crying. There shall be no more pain, for the former things have passed away."


Optional Readings:

  • Numbers 28:16-25
  • The Song of Solomon (all 8 chapters) is read on the intervening Sabbath.
  • New Testament References: Mark 14, John 13, Acts 2:9-10, John 19:36, Matthew 26, John 1:29, I Corinthians 5:7-8, I Peter 1:19, Luke 22, Revelation 5:6, I Corinthians 11:17-34
  • Passover-Related Scriptures in the Gospels: Matthew 19:1 - 28:15, Luke 17:11 - 24:35, Mark 10:32 - 16:13, John 11:1 - 20:25 (Also: John 2:13 - 3:2, John 6:4, Luke 2:41 - 53)
  • Exodus 12:21 - 13:16 and Numbers 28:16-25
  • Haftarah: Joshua 5:2 - 6:1
  • Exodus 22:24 - 23:19, Leviticus 22:26 - 23:44 and Numbers 28:16-25
  • Haftarah: II Kings 23:1 - 23:9; 23:21 - 23:25
  • Exodus 34:1 - 34:26
  • Numbers 9:1-14 and Numbers 28:19-25
  • Exodus 33:12 - 34:26 and Numbers 28:19-25
  • Haftarah: Ezekiel 37:1 - 37:14
  • Exodus 13:17 - 15:26 and Numbers 28:19 - 28:25
  • Haftarah: II Samuel 22:1-51
  • Deuteronomy 15:19 - 16:17 and Numbers 28:19 - 28:25
  • Haftarah: Isaiah 10:32 - 12:6
  • Deuteronomy 14:22 - 16:17 and Numbers 28:19 - 28:25
  • The Song of Solomon (all 8 chapters) is read on the intervening Sabbath.
  • New Testament References: Mark 14, John 13, Acts 2:9-10, John 19:36, Matthew 26, John 1:29, I Corinthians 5:7-8, I Peter 1:19, Luke 22, Revelation 5:6, I Corinthians 11:17-34
  • Passover-Related Scriptures in the Gospels: Matthew 19:1 - 28:15, Luke 17:11 - 24:35, Mark 10:32 - 16:13, John 11:1 - 20:25 (Also: John 2:13 - 3:2, John 6:4, Luke 2:41 - 53)
  • The cups of wine are discussed well on this site: https://www.torahresource.com/pdf-articles/the-four-cups.pdf

Here is a table from the Kabbalah showing the relationship between the Ten Sayings of Creation, the Ten Lessons (Plagues), and the Ten Precepts (Commandments):

#

Ten Lessons (Plagues - Formation)

Ten Sayings of Creation

Ten Commandments (Precepts)

1

Blood: Life-giving principle reversed.

Male/Female: “I will make you a companion.”

Release all Attachments: You shall not covet.

2

Frogs: Foundation becomes unclean.

Sustenance
“Behold I have given the fruit of the earth as food for all living beings.”

Speak the Truth: You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.

3

Lice: Madness

Human Being
“Let us create a being in our image and likeness.”

Honor the Boundaries of Others: You shall not steal.

4

Wild Beasts (flies) The animal soul (physical endurance) self-destructs.

Land Creatures: “Let the earth bring forth living creature.”

Honor your Commitments: You shall not commit adultery.

5

Pestilence The separation of life and death (Animal soul and Psyche; Egypt and Israel).

Sea & Sky Creatures: “Let the waters team with life and let creatures fly on the face of the sky.”

Honor all Life: You shall not murder.

6

Boils Concentrated form of Justice.

Sun, Moon, Stars: “Let there be lights in the Heavens to divide day & night.”

Honor Each Other: Honor your father and your mother.

7

Hail Uncontrolled force of Mercy.

Vegetation: “Let the earth send forth vegetation.”

The 7th Day is Holy: Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy.

8

Locusts The destruction of the Life-Form system.

Earth & Sea: “The water shall be gathered and dry land shall be seen.”

God’s Name is Holy: You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain.

9

Darkness The curtailment of the Life Force.

Heaven: “Let there be a firmament in the middle of the water.”

No form can represent God: You shall not make idols.

10

Death of Firstborn Severing the connection between the body and soul (ego and Higher Self)

Light: “Let there be Light.”

There is only one God: You shall have no other gods before Me.


Lineage of Christ to Us